Martin Luther King rightfully objected to the term “black” on the grounds that it reduced an entire people, to a single colour.
That this is precisely what “black” does and achieves, needs no further validation than a cursory overview of anti-racist campaigns “don’t judge me by the color of my skin” … “be color-blind”… “just because he was a different color?!”
“Black” is certainly reductionist, and carries no small responsibility for the bastardisation of all racial discourse into imbecilic “is it racist” or “he is so tolerant” clichés.
The term “Negro” does no such thing. It admits the wealth of the Sub-Saharan African heritage, in the diaspora and at home, and gives a people a full-bodied and comprehensive identity tied not to the superficies of skin, but to all the traits which make the Negro a race. In order to escape reductionism, the Clash of Races uses “black” to signify negro, and does so by freely using the latter term in discussions of “blacks.”
As mentioned in the previous post , whites and negroes are the only two clearly genetically discernible races relevant to the Clash of Races hypothesis. Non-white and non-white and non-black are in a not-in-a-hurry and yet-to-be classified genetic mode, while boasting a definable political tennor which will be discussed in future posts.
It was pointed out in The New Centrality of Race, that whites constitute a group in universal decline, irrespective of geographic location; that while they decline, they seek to offset shrinking population numbers with the superfluous product of non-whites, which they achieve by ambitiously seeking to deny their whiteness.
We have yet to discuss this denial in detail, but we’ve already touched on the fact that as whites undergo global decline, they do not possess, and never did posses – a global consciousness of being “white.” the exception being those whites, who were located on the periphery of the Euroasiatic landmass at the start of the 17th century.
The first literate reference to Negroes of the Western Sub-Sahara comes from Muslim slave-traders. They are as disparaging and negative as everything that would emerge with the Atlantic slave-trade.
In the first recorded contact between blacks and non-blacks, negativity stands out . Muslims would come to dominate the African slave-trade in more ways than one, and like the eventual masters of the Atlantic Slave Trade, elements of a “racial” consciousness are apparent from the start.
Following their expansion into the Western hemisphere, whites on the extremity of the European continent, created what became known as the Atlantic Slave Trade. They inherited the practice from Muslim slavers who had penetrated negro lands centuries earlier, and would continue to control the internal-African-slave trade and function as intermediaries between whites and negroes until the European colonisation of Africa would eliminate them.
Like their Muslim precursors, from the very beginning of contact with Negroes, whites considered them sub-human. Debates in the Vatican, over the Christianisation of blacks, focused on of negroes being human enough to receive baptism.
Regardless of the eventual outcome of these debates, the impact of white contact with blacks on white consciousness of their whitenes, appears to have varied with the actual degree of whiteness of the Europeans making the contact!
Spaniards and Portuguese developed elaborate classification schemes and interbred with the negroes, whites with more distinct white features – from England, Ireland, and Scotland – did so only in an illicit, vengeful, and denigrating manner. Their offspring were considered “negro” and benefitted from no admitted mix-raced status as in the Latin case.
The Muslim African slave trade long preceded the Western European, and its size was somewhat greater than the short-lived, albeit intense Atlantic slave trade. Because it is seldom studied, the overall impact on Muslim race awareness between what Ibn Battuta described as the most “depraved savages,” (negroes) and the Muslim world, is not well understood in the West.
The results of the white slave-traders are evident in a sizable negro diaspora found in the Western Hemisphere; the evidence for the Muslim trade appears a bit nastier, although somewhat opaque.
The brutal explanation, well documented by researchers, is that Muslim slavers routinely castrated all negro males, to prevent miscegenation once in Arabo-Persian lands. This presumes an Islamic racial consciousness on par with the Nazis. (disclaimer: this became the case following the fall of the Fatimids, not prior). It explains, why negro communities were rare, and tiny, if ever found in Arabo-Persian Muslim lands.
For blacks, the impact of contact with fair-skinned colonists, is evident. The negro populations of the Western Hemisphere may approach 70,000,000 (larger numbers are questionable) of pure negro blood. Several Caribbean states are entirely black, while Brazil, and the United States of America, boast black communities numbering in the the double digit millions.
While the migratory effect of white-black contact is visible to the naked eye – far less evident, is its impact on rest of the world.
Western-European whites dominated most of the known world by the seventeenth century, and while some explained this with their skin-colour and ethnic superiority, even more of them interpreted it as proof of religious supremacy, a spiritual, not to mention the technological, and cultural conquest. “Whiteness” was cetainly most felt vis a vis the negro, and became more nebulous when China and India were involved.
The negro, however, enjoyed no such nebulousness vis a vis anybody. While the problem of racism was particularly acute in those lands to which he was being transported by either his white, or Muslim owners, it is a historical falsity to attribute anti-negro sentiment only to those peoples with whom he had the misfortune to share his fortune.
While Western whites and to an -unknown degree Muslims – developed an entire ideology of animosity towards negroes, which has come to be known as “racism” – those peoples who never enjoyed close contact with the negro -the Chinese, Indians, Russians, and Native Americans, express a perception of negroes as negative as any found on a 19th century plantation in Alabama! Early on, they perceived blacks as savages – and this perception, has not changed since.
While the non-white non black discovery of “blacks” came via whites, it would be spurious to attribute non-black animosity, to the singular historical circumstance of “racist” white mediation.
If life were this simple, how could one explain the the case of East African cousins in Kenya, consider the negroes of the Sub-Saharan West, brute savages and cannibals? A specific references to this judgement, is made in the recollections of the most famous mulatto of Kenyan ancestry alive – Barack Hussein Obama.
The historical impact on whites, and non-whites of interacting with negroes, remains to be studied. It is easy to engross oneself in relatively well documented, and highly intense interaction of North American whites and negro slaves, and to conclude that racial awareness as a global development, flows from self-conscious whites, to the rest of the non-white world. It is far more difficult to understand the contribution of negroes, as a highly distinct race, to the same phenomenon.
The story in today’s textbooks, is that Scots-Irish slave-owners were keenly aware of their whiteness, and developed this awareness into an institution, as a result of dominance over the negro. From there, racism developed into a global phenomenon, alongside America’s – and England’s – rise to global dominance.
While outwardly boasting an expression of veracity, the trouble with this textbook story is that it is one which disenfranchises the negro, by making him a passive player in the development of racial consciousness. It is open to the accusation of cum hoc ergo propter hoc.
The 16th century contact between white and black, was a discovery for both. It was a moment when western whites develop a consciousness of
- their intellectual superiority over blacks
- and physical inferiority to them
while negroes discovered their
- physical prowess and endurance over whites
- intellectual inferiority to whites
None of these discoveries were invented or schemed by western whites – predatory Muslim slavers had insisted on them centuries earlier, and they found themselves in an identical position vis a vis the blacks – both physically, and intellectually. But since whites did not destroy the reproductive capacity of their black slaves as extensively as Muslims, this binary perception of blacks and whites, became institutionalized in their inseperable destiny.
That racial consciousness dominated the New World, in ways that would not appear in the Old, until the 19th century, is revealing. While the Atlantic Slaver trade was a white man’s game – it was limited to the traders who dealt with the blacks, and less so to the domestic populations of the countries of the slavers’ origin.
White populations back in Spain, Portugal, France and England, had no practical experience living with negroes, and consciousness of their whiteness remained stifled at the “radian white skin is pretty” while “sooty skin is of the laboring classes” level.
It was only in the New World, where whites of varying degrees of whiteness, were making a profit off the back of the negroes physical endurance, that consciousness of race existed in a functional form among each and every inhabitant of the hemisphere.
A lesson is learnt from this –
- racial consciousness among the masses, is a product of proximity between different races in economic life.
- the perception of negroes is constant across cultures, regardless of proximity, but only when proximity is achieved, does a this perception take institutional forms.
Both points are crucial to the Crash of Races hypothesis. The development of racial consciousness is linear. Beginning with the dispersal of Sub-Saharan blacks beyond their point of origin, into non-black societies it is on the uptick, because every increase in interaction between blacks, and non-blacks, as with whites and non-whites, leads to increases in racial consciousness.
Up till now blacks with communal and reproductive rights found themselves only in the white societies of the New World. Racial consciousness was the result.
Once whites encroached on the negroes home-turf in Africa, racial consciousness in Africa, was the result.
Now, as negroes penetrate white spaces in the north – racial consciousness in Europe, is the result.
What will happen, if and when Africans disperse in numbers sizable to form communities in non-white non-black societies, is predictable – an immediate rise in non-black racial consciousness. Peoples who currently do not participate in the racial game, will do so in increasing numbers.
Because perception of negroes is steady across all cultures – intellectual inferiority coupled with physical superiority, nearly all such racial consciousness, is likely to be negative for negroes. A steady, and unrelenting movement, of a Crash of Races, appears inevitable.
That said, whether blacks carry, or will carry any more responsibility for this Crash, than whites or non-blacks, is unclear.